Working your triceps is as simple as extending your arm through resistance.
If you look at the angle formed by your elbow, you'll see that a narrower grip forces the elbow angle to change through a wider range - this is shifting the work to the triceps from the chest.
When you add the incline, you are now resisting gravity at an angle as well. This resistance will come from your anterior deltoids to keep your arms stable when they are not perpendicular to the floor. It will still work your triceps, you are simply involving more deltoids as well.
You say you have a 30 - 45min window of opportunity to take protein, etc. after working out. Does this mean 30 - 45mins after a complete workout, or does this mean 30 - 45min after working out a single muscle group?